Knowledge Series For Commerce Students: Know Your Home Loan

Home Loans cater to your needs or possibly a renovation, construction, or additional repairs…

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Home Loans cater to your needs or possibly a renovation, construction, or additional repairs to your humble abode. It is affiliated with a plethora of facets that the borrower needs to take into consideration before he/she can finally attempt to avail of such a loan.

How Much Of A Loan Amount Are You Eligible To Avail?
The predominant requirement is the eligibility of the borrower in the repayment of the loan that would determine the tenure, interest rates, and down payments attached to the loan amount. Your surplus income will drive the lender to figure out the actual amount of loan that you are eligible for.

So, your total assets, total liabilities, and the apparent stability of income play a pivotal role in gaining the lender’s trust. At the end of the day, a bank needs to ensure that your financial stability will not pose any problem for them in the repayment of the loan amount.

Additional Charges And Figures That You Need To Be Aware Of
Statistically, the bank assumes that as much as 50% of your income would suffice for your loan repayment, furthermore, the desired tenure, as well as pegged interest rate, will also impact the decision of assessing the amount of loan.

The majority of lenders expect around 10 to 20 per cent of the amount of home’s purchase in the form of a down payment on your part, and the remaining portion of the loan is eventually financed by the lender.

Now, this aggregate amount of loan encompasses certain charges, for instance, registration, transfer, stamp duty etc. You may be eligible for a larger amount but it does not necessarily mean that you have to get that much amount financed, even a significantly smaller amount can also be availed which directly relies on your requirement.

It is advisable, however, that keeping the ratio of down payment relatively higher than the ratio of loan amount so that the ultimate cost of interest payable can be mitigated and be kept at the desired level.

The Necessity Of A Co-Applicant
Additionally, having a co-applicant is an indispensable requirement to fulfil, so if you are the only owner of the property under scrutiny, then, in this case, an immediate sibling or any other family member can be anointed as a co-applicant.

What Specific Documents You Will Require For The Loan?
The documentation process is another integral and intrinsic phase where a checklist of specified documents is handed out by the bank which is to be filled accurately to steer clear of future ramifications.

Your unique identity proof, proof of residence, form 16/Income tax returns and recent salary slips which has to be decidedly authenticated by your employer and has to be self-attested.

But generally, in most cases, collateral security is also warranted such as insurance policies, units of mutual funds or any other significant investment. In most cases, the designated property is purposefully mortgaged in favour of the lender in the form of security until the loan has been repaid in its entirety.

Should You Secure Your Home Loan With An Insurance Policy?
It is vehemently advisable to secure insurance in favour of the home loan so that the liability does not fall on anyone else, but you alone will be secured enough to repay it. Now there are two prominent plans which are prevalent in today’s scenario, i.e. pure term insurance and the other one is a Mortgage insurance plan.

Now the loan amount should be equivalent to the insurance amount. As far as the premium is concerned, then a single premium, as well as regular premiums, will be the coveted choice. However, it is not mandatory to avail of insurance cover but a sense of self-assurance is generated by availing of such service.

Disbursement Of Loan
The documentation process is the precursor of the disbursement of the loan. The magnitude of the loan amount is solely scrutinised based on the documentary proof and that entails the procurement of a sanction letter from the bank which explicitly states the final amount of loan, duration, and applicable interest rate etc.

So in a nutshell, when the loan has finally been confirmed from the bank, it is commonly referred to as disbursement of the loan after getting through entire technical and legal or valuation activities and handover the cheque or demand draft in favour of seller after successful execution of sale deed and mortgage deed of the house.

Types Of Interest Rates
Rates of home loan can be distinct in the form of fixed or flexible. Calculation of EMI varies as per the various financial institutions/banks from where your loan has been sanctioned. Underlying additional charges also apply in tandem with the payment of the EMI such as processing fee which is generally about 0.5 to 1% of the loan amount. Now, repayment in the form of EMI begins right after the month when the loan has been disbursed.

Repayment Through ECS
Electronic Clearing System (ECS) is one of the avenues through which the repayment of the loan can be done, which involves direct payment of the loan amount from your salary account on a specific date of the repayment.

If you are eligible to pay higher EMI, then it will certainly benefit you since it acts as a long-term advance. Clearing the obligated amount faster will alleviate and relieve your mental stress easily.

The borrower always has this option at his disposal to pre-close his/her loan way ahead of the specified duration. However if the interest on your loan is of floating nature, then you will not be bound to pay additional charges, whereas if it is of a fixed nature, then certain charges may be applicable.

Every financer or lender should explicitly state in their statement the total interest as well as the principal amount payable at the very beginning of the financial year. This will eventually serve as a propellent factor to the department of accounts regarding your proof of investment for necessary tax deductions.

This phenomenon will serve you to reap tax benefits at the end of the year. It is prudent to pick the lender that renders the lowest EMIs option which can mean that you are paying a significantly lesser amount of money in the form of repayments as compared to other applicants from any other financial institution.

How Your Grievances Can Be Addressed
There may be incidences that a borrower may not be satisfied with the services rendered by the bank or some other pertaining relevant problem might occur.

So in that case, you can mention your grievance specifically in writing delineating the factors that displeased you, which needs to be addressed at the concerned branch and if however, the bank does not resolve or overlooks your concern then you have the option at your disposal to lodge your complaint with the ombudsman.

Income Tax Benefit of Housing Loan
Interest payment for housing loan is deductible under the head income from house property. The maximum limit is Rs. 2 Lacs p.a. u/s. 24(b). Moreover, we can also get benefit u/s. 80C of income tax for the principal repayment of housing loan with maximum limit of Rs. 1.50 Lacs. The stamp duty and registration charges paid at the time of registration of sale deed is also deductible u/s 80C of Income Tax Act, 1961.

Knowledge Of Insurance For Tax Professionals

Varsha who works at a media office in Ahmedabad met with an accident on…

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Varsha who works at a media office in Ahmedabad met with an accident on her way to work. She was rushed to the hospital where she was treated for four days before being discharged. The hospital bill amounted to about Rs.60,000.

Fortunately, she had a health insurance cover of Rs.3,00,000. The hospitalization and treatment charges were taken care of by the insurer. Had there been no insurance coverage, she would have had to pay the entire amount out of her own pocket.

Insurance is your cushion against unexpected financial losses or damages. An insurance policy is what Varsha signed with the insurance company which was a legal statement of her agreement with the company, which agreed to cover costs in case of a damage, in exchange for a periodic premium paid by her.

Here, the company is the ‘insurer’ while Varsha is the ‘policyholder’ as well as the ‘insured’. A policyholder is not always the same as the ‘insured’. Such cases will be explained further in this read.

Insurance is not only procured by individuals but also by businesses to insure against specific types of risks. Premium, Deductible and the Policy Limit are three essential components of an insurance policy. A good understanding of what all an insurance policy entails can be gathered by enrolling in the taxation course in Ahmedabad.

Components Of An Insurance Policy

  • Premium – A premium is a regular payment – annual, semi-annual or monthly —made by the policyholder to the insurance company for purchasing a policy. The amount of the premium depends on factors like the type of coverage (business-specific, medical insurance, home insurance etc.), the amount of total coverage, an individual’s insurance history (to determine risk factors), as well as competition in the insurance industry. Higher the risk factors, more the amount of premium you have to pay.
  • Deductible – It is the amount that a policyholder has to pay on her own while the insurer pays a claim. Deductibles are meant to work as disincentives against minor or insignificant claims. The policyholder usually has the choice to decide their deductible. As a general rule, higher the deductible, lower is the premium and vice versa. 
    Policy Limit – It is the maximum amount the insurance company will pay for a covered claim. These maximum amounts can be determined per-damage, per-time-period or over a policy’s lifetime. Higher policy limits have higher premiums.

Policy limits can vary within a policy according to various aspects of the damage. To delve into understanding these, one may consider taking the tax practitioner course in Ahmedabad.

Types Of Insurance Policies

Life Insurance or Term Plan

It is particularly an essential coverage in cases where the beneficiaries are heavily dependent on the insured person. Life insurance policies promise to compensate the beneficiaries of the insured person, in case they expire during the policy term, or after a set period. The payment made for life insurance is deductible under section 80C of Income Tax Act,1961. To know details about how much you can save as tax you can learn by taxation course in Ahmedabad.

Health Insurance 

For medical emergencies, health insurance covers the costs of treatment, hospitalization and medication. Health insurance plans in India also come with tax benefits on premiums as mentioned in section 80D of Income Tax Act, 1961. Types of Health insurance plans include 

  • Individual plans
  • Family plans
  • Senior Citizen plans
  • Critical Illness plans
  • Maternity plans
  • Group plans
  • Unit Linked health plans
  • Coronavirus plans

Employees these days are mostly covered under Group insurance plans by employers, who pay the premium instead of the employees.The same is allowable expense for the company. Though the amount is usually not great, yet it is advisable to be covered under such plans since some benefits still count against zero-premium paid.

Vehicle Insurance 

It ensures monetary compensation in case of any accidents that may have led to the damage of the motor vehicle. A four-wheeler insurance policy is mandatory in India as per the Motor Vehicle Act 1988.

Vehicle insurance includes all expenses in case of death and damage suffered due to collisions or natural calamities, hospitalization expenses in the event of an accident, legal/financial damages due to third party liability, as well as rider benefits like roadside assistance. Major types of car insurance plans available in India are –

  • Comprehensive car insurance: Insures car damages and third-party liability cover 
  • Third-Party car insurance: Only third-party legal liability cover
  • Pay as you drive insurance: Insurance premiums are decided by the kilometres driven (suitable for people who own more than one car, and each of the vehicles is not used very frequently)

The taxation training in Ahmedabad is a good option to consider if one wants to learn about new policy developments like the ‘Pay as you drive insurance’, that are created as a response to changing lifestyles and newer needs.

Education Insurance 

Securing their child’s future is the biggest concern of a parent. Education insurance policies aid in the same by providing an amount of education cost when the child is ready to indulge in higher education; 18 years of age and above. This is the kind of policy where the ‘policyholder’ is not the same as the ‘insured’. Here, the parent/guardian is the policyholder while the child is the insured. 

Home Insurance 

It covers all expenses in case of damages incurred to a house due to any sort of physical damage caused either due to human-caused accidents or natural calamities. Home insurance covers not only the building or structure but also the contents of the house and any other detached structures that may be a part of it. Home insurances are aimed at providing indemnities for a variety of damages and include- 

  • Fire and Special perils
  • Public Liability cover
  • Building structure insurance
  • Burglary or Theft
  • Personal accident
  • Contents insurance
  • Landlord insurance
  • Tenant insurance

Professional Liability Insurance 

It ensures professionals like lawyers, trainers, tax preparers, accountants, doctors, beauticians and so on, against claims of damage made by clients. It indemnifies professional liability for the policy period only. The cover is provided mainly on a claims-made basis.

The aspect of a retroactive date is also available in the case of Professional Liability Insurance, which means that damages caused before the beginning of the policy period, which is being claimed during the policy period, are also covered.

Knowledge about insurance and its acute parts and mechanisms can be expanded by enrolling in the best tax course provider in Ahmedabad. A deeper understanding will help one to better analyze and choose the perfect insurance needed for a specific case and time. Knowledge so gathered will assist in making wiser decisions when choosing financial safety nets for oneself or clients.  

Learn Commerce Structures: All About Partnership Firms

When you start a business or a venture one has to make decisions. And…

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When you start a business or a venture one has to make decisions. And business is a whole new process of setting a company or a firm that is just like a newborn baby. A baby has to be taken care of and has to be taught everything and also needs spoon-feeding. A new venture requires a whole lot of effort and partnership is the most major part of it. 

A partnership is a part of a new venture and you as an individual have to decide whether you want to do solo business or you want a helping hand. So, today we will learn about a partnership, different features of partnerships, and different types of partnerships.

If you are a person who wants to start a new venture after B.com course in Ahmedabad. The partnership will be the most important aspect of it. And here you will get to know partnership and how a partnership works? And what is a partnership? And some of its key features.

A partnership is part of a business or a new venture. Also, a partnership is considered to be a kind of business. In this kind of business, minimum of two partners decide to come together for a new venture and share responsibilities as decided by them. In a partnership, there is a formal agreement that takes place between two or more people and they are the co-owners. And in this agreement, all have shared as mutually decided in profits as well as losses. Also, there is no solo decision; the majority of all the partners have to agree to the decision.

In India, all functions and aspects of partnership works or are administered under ‘The Indian Partnership Act 1932’. This law specifies and explains that a partnership is an association between two or more individuals or organizations who have agreed to be co-owners of a venture and they have to share the profits and loss as mutually decided. Also, the share of profits that have been generated from a business should be done under the supervision of the members or on the behalf of other members.

Features Of Partnership

Now that we have understood what a partnership looks like, let’s look at some features that constitute this type of arrangement.

  1. Partners Agreement: In a company or an organization the association of two or more partners is the most important aspect. When you as an individual decide to do a partnership for your new venture all the partner’s agreements will be the prior thing to do. An agreement is the basis of an association between two or more individuals. This is a type of agreement that is always written. Also, some people do an oral agreement evenhandedly. But it is preferable to do a written agreement. Also, it is always that all partners have a copy of their written agreement. The agreement should also be norarised and prescribed stamp duty has to be paid on the same. We have also registered our firm with the registrar of the firm.
  2. Two or more two people: In a new venture it is always suggested that there should be a partnership of two people which have a common goal. In an enterprise, for a partnership, at least two people should be there. Whereas there can be more than two people depending upon what is your goal. 
  3. Sharing of profit: When two people form an association for a common goal so it is a rule that they have to share the profit or loss that is being processed by the company. The partners have to share the profit as well as loss as mutually decided.
  4. Profit Motive: It is very important that when you and your partners start a business that business should be profitable and have a gaining motive.
  5. Correlated Business: In a partnership both the partners are the co-owners as well as an agent of their firm. Any act performed by a partner will affect the other partners and the company. So, this point acts as a test of partners and their partnership.
  6. Limitless Liabilities: Every partner in a partnership has limitless liabilities.  All the partners are jointly and severally liable for all the losses caused by  the firm.

These features are the most important for the person who wants to start a partnership. After commerce course in Ahmedabad, an individual must have learned about the features of a partnership and how it works.

Types Of Partnerships

Partnerships are divided into different categories depending upon the state and at which part of the world business operates. Here we will talk about three common types of partnerships.

  • General Partnership: This type of partnership comprises two or more two people who have formed an association to run a business. In this type of partnership, every partner has an equal right and every partner can exercise their rights. Every partner has the right to control business and also participate in every activity like decision making, management activities, etc. Not only the rights, but there is equal sharing of responsibilities as well as liabilities. Any type of loss, profit, or liability every partner will be held responsible for the same. Even if one partner is sued, the rest of the partners are held accountable. The court or the creditor will hold the partner’s assets. So, people usually don’t opt for this type of partnership.
  • Limited Partnership: In this partnership, includes each of the final and restricted partners. the final partner has unlimited liability, manages the business, and also the alternative restricted partners. restricted partners have restricted management over the business (limited to his investment). they’re not related to the everyday operations of the firm. In most cases, the restricted partners solely invest and take a profit share. they do not have any interest in taking part in the management or higher cognitive process. This group action means that they are doing not have the correct to compensate the partnership losses from their revenue enhancement come back
  • Limited Liability Partnership: In an LLP partnership all the partners have limited liability. Each partner is guarded against alternative partners’ legal and monetary mistakes. A Limited Liability Partnership is similar to a Limited Liability Company (LLC) but different from Limited Partnership and a general partnership. We have to register LLC to registrar of companies under LLP Act to start the same.
  • Partnership At-Will: Partnership at Will can be defined as a partnership where no clause has been mentioned about the expiration date of the partnership. Under Section 7 of The Indian Partnership Act 1932, Two clauses have to be fulfilled for Partnership At Will
  1. The partnership agreement should not have any fixed expiration date.
  2. No particular determination of the partnership should be mentioned.

Therefore, if the duration of the partnership has been mentioned in the agreement that will not be considered Partnership At Will. Also, If the firm has initially fixed an expiration date but continues or is operational after the given date then that is considered Partnership At Will.The technicalities of Partnership can only be learned from a good institute. Like the commerce course in Ahmedabad offered by H.L College of Commerce.

Advantages of Partnership

  • In a partnership, there is an easy formation that can be done through an oral or written agreement
  • In a new venture, there is a large use of resources instead of  being a sole proprietor you can be share and contribute the capital
  • There is flexibility where you can make any changes ad required to achieve the motive
  • All the loss and profits are equally shared and burden so no one individual is a loss or profit
  • A partnership firm has a combination of new skills because there is the advantage of knowledge, skill, talents and experience.

Disadvantages Of Partnership

  • There is a limited amount of capital
  • There are unlimited liabilities
  • There is difficulty in transferring shares because the funds can only be transferred once the agreement is done
  • A partnership business could face dissolution just in case of death, economic condition or mental or physical sickness of active partners
  • A partnership has limited business sizes and it barely has its existence of the law so there is a less public faith
  • In a partnership, some dispute can occur in terms of authority and the profit so this create problems between the partners and for the business
  • With a lack of prompt decision the partner’s square measure needed to make consequences before creating any call within the partnership business.All the partner ought to move to debate the matter of business. therefore this takes a very long time to form a call and conjointly delays it
  • There is a risk of implied authority that the two active partners are the decision-makers of the business, but there is no certainty if the partner is deciding for the betterment of the business. There is a risk whether the partner is deciding for his or her benefits


A partnership is the best way to do business. As it creates opportunities for any two or more individuals and this brings the best out of it. Two or more minds with creative and mind-blowing ideas give outstanding performance and results. The partnership is a benefit for those who have a proper written agreement because that will help in doing a proper and well-structured business with equal responsibilities and liabilities.

Part – iv- Learn Commerce structures IV: Public Limited Company
Part – iii – Learn Commerce Structures III: Private Limited Company
Part – ii – Learn Commerce Structures II: Proprietorship Firm