Learn Commerce structures IV: Public Limited Company

An organization that functions as a single entity formed and owned by shareholders is…

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An organization that functions as a single entity formed and owned by shareholders is called a Public Limited Company. It constitutes a company that can freely sell its shares in a public domain and all its decisions are governed by strict rules and regulations.

In the Indian Republic, a Public Limited Company is the largest method of doing business available under the law. Often a group of people who have a great business idea, register for a Public Limited Company and generate capital by offering shares that can be bought by the public. In the present economic scenario, Public Limited Company is very profitable and thus gaining further education in Public Limited Companies after BCom course in Ahmedabad, proves beneficial.

What is a Public Limited Company?

A Public Limited Company in layman’s terms is a company formed and by the people and makes profits for the people. Thus, a company that is registered as a Public Limited Company cannot and will not have a specific owner. This makes sure that a one-head monopoly is avoided in the company.

Let us take an example of a famous Public Limited Company in India, The State Bank of India. Founded in 1955, as an amalgamation of the three princely state banks in British rule, The State Bank of India is one of the most prominent examples of a Public Limited Company. All the shares of the State Bank of India are listed on the National Stock Exchange and the Bombay Stock Exchange for sale to the public.

There is no owner of the State Bank of India and all the profit generated is paid to employees and shareholders as dividends. The presence of the State Bank of India makes sure that the banking sector is free of monopoly by a mogul or one single private bank.

Who is the owner of a public limited company?

The most distinctive aspect of a Public Limited Company is its ownership. In a private company, the owner is either a parent organization or a group of people who founded the company.

Unlike private companies, a Public Limited Company is purely founded and owned by the public. Thus, a Public Limited Company will not have an owner but rather it will have shareholders. The management of a Public Limited Company is looked after by a Board of Directors (we shall discuss this in the features of a Public Limited Company).

What are the features of a public limited company?

Let us try to analyze the features of a Public Limited Company to gain better knowledge;

Legal Existence: A company that is registered as a Public Limited Company shall have separate legal existence from the members who own the company. This means that if a group of people come together and create a Public Limited Company then once the company is formed, it gains a separate identity. All legal documents like GST invoice, court notices shall be issued in the name of the company and not the owners or the management.

Capital: A Public Limited Company has to collect capital for its expenses and procuring its raw materials. Most Public Limited Companies collect capital by selling shares to buyers in the public domain. When you buy a share in a Public Limited Company, you own a certain percentage of the company. The capital generated by selling public shares is called the share capital.

Shareholders: A Public Limited Company is owned by shareholders. This means that no person can claim the company as their own private company. But shareholders cannot take part in the management decisions of the company. Their sole role is to elect the managerial committee often the Board of Directors that looks after the major business decisions of the company.

When a company is indebted and is liquidated, the shareholders do not have to pay the creditors of the company. Rather they have to pay only the face value of their shares. For example, say you hold a thousand shares in a company each worth ten rupees. If the company goes bankrupt, you will have to only pay the face value of the shares that is; ten thousand rupees.

Board of Directors: Almost all companies today, public or private, establish a board of directors to look after major business decisions of the company. The difference here is, the board of directors in a Public Limited Company are selected by the shareholders and they represent these shareholders during meetings with other companies. The decisions taken by the Board of Directors use a majority rule and this ensures unity in the management.

What are the merits of a public limited company?

Public Limited Companies are often the largest companies in a business. Let us analyze a few of the merits of a Public Limited Company;

Leadership: As stated earlier, Public Limited Companies have a board of directors. This ensures that the company is led by a consensus rather than the whims of a single leader. The main advantage of having a board of directors is that these directors are selected from the shareholders and by the shareholders.

Large Capital: One of the largest advantages of a Public Limited Company is that they can generate huge capital investments. By selling their shares in the public, Public Limited Companies generate a huge capital for their expenses. Once the Initial Public Offering (IPO) is over and the share capital has been generated, Public Limited companies can release bonds and debentures through the stock market to generate additional capital. Thus, Public Limited Companies that have a strong performance can generate greater capital over time.

Financials: Public Limited Companies are strictly governed by rules and regulations. Thus, they are required to publish their financial records every year. Unlike private companies, Public Limited Companies have to make sure that their investors know the financial happenings and position of the company. This adds an element of safety to Public Limited Companies and helps them in attracting potential investors.

Limited Liability: Shareholders in a Public Limited Company are protected from incurring the company’s losses. What this means is that shareholders have to pay only the face value of the shares they hold in a company if it goes bankrupt. This facet also makes sure that Public Limited Companies are separate entities on their own and can also be sued on their own without the involvement of the shareholders.

What are the demerits of a public limited company?

Though there are many advantages to a Public Limited Company, there are few disadvantages too that we need to discuss;

Public Books: On the one hand publishing financial records every year, helps Public Limited Company attract investors but at the same, this also means that their competition knows everything about them. Since the company has gone public, the competition can easily analyze their finance books and see the loss and profit that the company is experiencing. This aspect poses great difficulty to Public Limited Companies.

Greedy Shareholders: Often the public has no interest in the working of the company. Investors today want to make an easy buck and this means that they do not pay any attention to the detailed plans a company lays down to expand. Greedy Shareholders take no part in developing these plans and often prove detrimental to the company’s plan.

Takeover: Unlike private companies, Public Limited Companies are prone to takeovers since the board of directors is selected by shareholders. A hostile party may buy a huge number of stocks in the company and gain a significant voice in the board of directors. This means that a hostile party can gain ruling command in a company and derail the existing chain of command.

Is there any specific member requirement in a Public limited company?

A company that wants to register itself as a Public Limited Company has to have a minimum of seven members. The maximum limit for the number of members in a Public Limited Company does not exist, unlike Private companies that can have a maximum of two hundred members only.

This gives an advantage to the Public Limited Companies as they can have a huge number of members. Specific employee requirements can further dwell in deeper after commerce courses in Ahmedabad.

What are the requirements for Public Limited Company registration?

In today’s time, the Government of India has made registering Public Limited Companies easier as compared to earlier times. According to the Ministry of Corporate Affairs, there are three mandatory requirements that a company has to fulfill to register itself as a Public Limited Company;

  • The company must have a minimum of seven share holders.
  • The company must have a minimum of seven share holders 
  • The company must introduce minimum share capital of Rs 5 Lacs
  • All sections of the company should have a direct impact on its compliances.

What are the documents required for registration?

There are two sets of documents required for registration, one set for the directors and shareholders and the other set for registering the company office;

Directors/ Shareholders

  • Copy of PAN Card
  • Aadhar Card
  • Address Proof (Bank Statement, Mobile bill, Telephone bill)
  • Authorization Form

Registered Office

  • Ownership Proof (Electricity Bill, sale deed, copy of index II, Tax Bill, etc)
  • Utility Bill (Gas Bill, Electricity Bill)
  • NOC

What is the process of registering a Public Limited Company?

The process involved in registering a Public Limited Company is;

  • Identify Seven Shareholders and Three directors (Minimum numbers you may have more)
  • Obtain a Director Identification Number (DIN): Every director of the company must have a DIN allotted to them by the Ministry of Corporate Affairs.
  • Obtain a Digital Signature Certificate for Promoter and Directors: This legally allows the promoters to promote the company and recognizes the directors of the company. It also allows the authorities to authenticate the documents being filed.
  • Identify location and capital of the company
  • Company name application: The company should apply to the Registrar of Companies, to reserve a unique name for themselves.
  • Preparation and submission of the Registration documents to the ROC: Registration documents like Memorandum of Association and Articles of Association have to be prepared and submitted to the ROC.
  • Issuing of the Certificate of Incorporation and allocation of the Corporate Identification Number by the ROC
  • Filing commencement of Business: The company cannot start its business until the directors have filed a declaration stating that all shareholders have paid the share money within 180 days of incorporation.


Public Limited Companies allows making sure that major sectors like banking, finance stay free of the monopoly of huge private industries. Thus, learning about Public Limited Companies after BCom courses in Ahmedabad proves very beneficial in the longer run. It can help create and build Public Limited Companies that can go on to become leaders in their respective businesses.

Part – iii – Learn Commerce Structures III: Private Limited Company
Part – ii – Learn Commerce Structures II: Proprietorship Firm
Part – i – Learn Commerce Structures: All About Partnership Firms

A Career In Commerce And Job Opportunities

IntroductionCommerce has been a course that has been neglected a lot in India. The…

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Commerce has been a course that has been neglected a lot in India. The basic system has divided courses into three categories- science, commerce, humanities. Science has always been valued the highest in India because everyone thinks the students in this field get more opportunities and better jobs when compared to the other two fields and also the pay is high so they can live a luxurious life. However, have you ever wondered what exactly to do After Bcom course?

Even though the statement is true it’s not only for science students. Even a commerce student can earn a good amount and live a comfortable luxurious life. In every job, the main importance is your pay and comfort according to your lifestyle. Therefore, your skills play an important role no matter the course.

What Is Commerce? Who is it for?
Commerce is essentially the conduct of trade among economic agents. It usually refers to the exchange of products, services, or something useful, between businesses or entities. From a better perspective, nations are only concerned with managing commerce in a way that enhances the well-being of their citizens, by providing them jobs and producing beneficial goods and services.

Commerce has existed from the time humans started exchanging goods and services with each other. Starting from bartering to the creation of currencies to the establishment of trade routes, humans have found ways to exchange goods and services and build a distribution process around the process of doing so.

In the present time, commerce normally refers to the macroeconomic purchases and sales of goods and services by large organizations at scale. Commerce is for any person who is interested in finance and transactions. So, if you have done a Commerce course and wish to make a career out of it, here are some career options that you should consider.

Top Highest Paying Jobs In Commerce field

Chartered Accountant
If you’re someone from the Commerce field, you’re presumably to understand about the Chartered Accountancy professional course. The Institute of Chartered Accountants of India or ICAI is a statutory body that designates an individual as an accountant after they need skilled a series of examinations and internship. It is one of the foremost popular commerce stream jobs. As a CA, they will handle the important accounts of a corporation and make sure that the finances are properly recorded and calculated.

Taking the role of a Chartered Accountancy is one of the absolute best-paying jobs in India for commerce students and it is a dream of most commerce students to become a CA. One can expect a starting salary of around Rs. 6 to Rs. 7 lakhs per annum as a CA. It is one of the very best salary jobs for commerce students.

when a CA gains more experience the value also increases. However, the CA exams are said to be one of the toughest then, many students stand back from it. While preparation requires immense diligence, this commerce job does pay off at the top, and therefore the fewer the attempts, the higher the pay.

Investment Banker
This is one of the highest-paying highest paying jobs in the field of commerce in India. Being an investment banker offers a huge salary in the commerce field. The duty of the investment banker is to provide advice and suggestions to various companies and firms so that they can use their money more effectively and achieve their financial goals.

Most companies develop their long-term and short-term financial plans with the help of investment bankers. according to their experience, an investment banker can get a salary of Rs. 20-25 lakhs per annum.

Chartered Financial Analyst
Chartered Financial Analyst is also one of the biggest posts in the field of investment management. CFA places amongst the highest paying jobs in the commerce field in India. any Commerce students who opt for this get an average salary of Rs. 12 lakhs per year. It is a good job profile that concerns commercial services globally.

CFA is also an essential part of many fields like asset management, equity, credit analysis, and revenue analysis, so on and so forth. They collect data from multiple sources and analyze it and evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of different investment vehicles.

Certified Public Accountant
The CPA is quite the same as the Chartered Accountancy, but CPA is offered by the American Institute of Certified Public Accountants (AICPA). hence, the CPA has a global interest.

Candidates who wish to obtain a CPA degree must have a bachelor’s degree in either Business Administration or Finance or Accounting and must complete 150 hours of study. The CPA does jobs like managing tax, auditing, reporting, and accounting processes for organizations or MNCs.

It is one of the jobs in the commerce field with a high salary that may lead to commercial broadcasters that can give you financial security. One must have a Business or Accounting degree to be eligible to appear for the CPA exam. A CPA can get a salary of around Rs.7-9 lakhs per annum.

An actuary is another respectable career option for people who are looking for jobs in the commerce field with a high salary. Actuaries are people who test risks involved in the insurance industry. Risks can include loss of property, disability, or other potential risks to the corporate.

They are risk management professionals who use their mathematical skills to live the likelihood of future events and predict their financial impact on their customers and businesses generally.

As an actuary, your work won’t be limited to financial institutions. As all areas of business are in danger, Actuaries may find employment opportunities in non-financial domains like land, health care, and other similar fields. An actuary can get up to a minimum salary of 10-14 lakhs per annum.

Cost Accountant
Cost Accountant is another one of the top jobs in the commerce field. There are two main objectives of accounting profit analysis and budget preparation. they are financial experts who help with budgeting, cost management, and company assets and evaluate company performance.

They are usually employed by manufacturing firms. Cost Accountants are essentially responsible for collecting, verifying, analyzing, and communicating data to facilitate financial visibility and improve processes.

They are also a part of the executive team and helped develop the company’s financial plan and report to stakeholders and tax authorities. a fresher has a salary of around Rs. 4 lakhs per annum as a Cost Accountant.

Professional Accountants
In addition to Chartered Accountants, students can also take up the profession of Professional Accountants as it also comes under the highest paying jobs in India. Professional Accountants help with accounting, tax, and compliance reporting.

They should have a working knowledge of accounting software such as SAP, Tally, and Excel. Accounting professionals should create and maintain accurate financial records for businesses and individuals. Professional Accountants can also get a job at an accounting firm or can set up their independent process. They can earn around Rs. 6 lakhs per annum as starting package.

Cost Accountant
Cost Accountant is another one of the top jobs in the commerce field. There are two main objectives of accounting profit analysis and budget preparation. they are financial experts who help with budgeting, cost management, and company assets and evaluate company performance.

They are usually employed by manufacturing firms. Cost Accountants are essentially responsible for collecting, verifying, analyzing, and communicating data to facilitate financial visibility and improve processes. They are also a part of the executive team and helped develop the company’s financial plan and report to stakeholders and tax authorities.

The salary of a fresher as a Cost Accountant is around Rs. 4 lakhs per annum. Retail Manager – A Retail manager assists in the management of supermarkets as per the business principles. The job of a Retail Manager is to run the sales or store successfully. They need a degree in Retail Management.

Retail Managers manage and monitor all aspects of the daily operations of stores, including sales, inventory, staff, and resource management. They have to be familiar with the product and their marketing philosophy. They must use clever marketing strategies to persuade customers to buy products from the store.

Company Secretary
The essential job of a company secretary is to ensure that the company they are working with, runs with proper coordination and while adhering to all the legal requirements and rules.

The Company Secretary (CS) is one of the main positions in the company or organization. CS serves as president between stakeholders and the board. They are responsible for making formal submissions such as account details, tax reports, and annual receipt reports.

CS is also one of the most popular commercial activities in India. Company Secretaries can expect a high salary of Rs. 6-7 lakhs per annum.CS is undoubtedly the most promising course.

Personal Financial Advisor
A personal financial advisor is a person who assists their clients with their financial goals, pensions, retirement savings, insurance, and debt management. Financial advisers require degrees in finance, finance, business, Mathematics, Law. They can get a salary of around Rs. 5 lakhs per annum.

These were the ten highest paying jobs in commerce fields in India. There are many more jobs for commerce students as well which provide decent pay. To name some of them are statistician, sales manager, finance manager, budget analyst, auditor, so on then forth.

It is a field suitable for those people that incline the sector of accountancy, finance, economics, and lots of other related fields. Several students in India join the sector of commerce only because they think it’s an easy choice than that of science but the reality isn’t so. If you’re hooked into this field then it definitely features a lot to supply and if you’re a hardworking person then you’ll get the highest salary jobs in the commerce field. Even though you don’t go for professional courses like CA or CFA, there are also some short term job oriented professional training programs available in the market to get entry in the commerce field job. Link for one of most sought after accounting course for commerce students is provided herewith.

Learn Commerce Structures III: Private Limited Company

Introduction  A Private Limited Company is quite a proven and effective business model. It…

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A Private Limited Company is quite a proven and effective business model. It involves private ownership, with a limited number of shareholders(a maximum of 200). These are small but successful business entities and are comparatively easy to achieve targets, for young entrepreneurs, after the BCom course

Although it’s somewhat open to all options, individuals from Commerce courses happen to make better jobs here, mostly due to additional Educational orientations to similar subjects, something other stream novices to this sector, are deprived of.

What Is A Private Limited Company? 

As the name suggests, a Private Limited Company is a privately held business entity. It offers limited liability or legal protection to its shareholders. It is an intermediate business stature, shareholders in between a partnership and a collectively owned business company. 

A maximum of 200 shareholders can be a part of this institution. According to the definition, the shares of these companies are not publicly sold in Stock Exchange markets and can only be sold to the stakeholders in the business, implying a ground-level limitation in the liquidation of such a company.

Who’s The Owner Of A Private Limited Company?

Private limited companies are owned by one or more individuals (human or corporate), known as “members”. The company’s “shareholders” are those, who’s memberships are limited by shares, while “guarantors”  are those limited by guarantees. Beyond the technical terms, members of a company are often referred to as partners.

The companies are majorly owned and managed by the same set of people, where the ones managing the functioning of the system are called Directors, and the ones assisting them are called Secretaries. Together, the executive branch of a company is known as company officers.

What Are The Features Of A Private Limited Company?

A private limited company has the following features:

  • Membership: As per the provisions of the Companies Act 2013, from a minimum of two to a maximum of 200 members, is what a private limited company is allowed to comprise of.
  • Limited liability: The liability of the members is limited to the number of shares directly held in their name.
  • Perpetual succession: Even in case of death, insolvency or bankruptcy of any of its members, the company continues to exist in the eyes of the law, thereby offering ways of forever existence.
  • Register of members: This database is not mandatory for a private limited company to maintain, unlike any public limited company.
  • Directors requirement: The company is required to have a minimum of two directors, and then it can remain operational.
  • Paid-up capital: A private limited company must hold a minimum capital worth rupees one Lac, or such higher amounts, prescribed from time to time.
  • Prospectus: A private limited company is not required to issue a prospectus either, again, an absolute must in case of any public limited company. 
  • Minimum subscription: There are no such limits on this ground and the company is free to start a business immediately after its formation.

Name: The company must use the word private limited company at the end of its name.

What Are The Merits Of A Private Limited Company?

A private limited company has the following advantages

  • Flexible Investment: No minimum capital threshold is required for registration.
  • Separate legal identity: A private limited company is a separate legal identity in the court of law and doesn’t hold overlapping assets and liabilities with the directors.
  • Free and easy transfer of shares: Shares of the company are transferable by a shareholder to any other person and it is particularly hazel free.
  • FDI allowed: In a private limited company, 100% foreign direct investment is permissible in certain segments.

What Are The Demerits Of A Private Limited Company?

A private limited company has the following disadvantages:

  • Publicity restrictions: It arrests the transferability of shares by its articles.
  • No place in the stock market: Shares of these companies are not entitled to be sold in the Stock Exchange markets.

Is There Any Specific Employer Requirement In A Private Limited Company?

There is no such mandatory requirement, to appoint employees in a private limited company. Though informal, graduates from Commerce Courses, are likely to prioritize, in the selection processes.

What Are The Requirements For Private Limited Company Registration?

A private limited company has the following requirements for registration::

  • A minimum of two adult persons are required to act as Directors of the company
  • Minimum of 2 Directors and can have a maximum of 2015 directors.
  • One of the directors of a private limited company has to be an Indian Citizen and Indian Resident.
  • The other director(s) can be a Foreign National.
  • Two persons are required to act as a shareholder of a company

What Are The Documents Required For Registration?

The documents required for a private limited company are:

  • ID proof: PAN card and passports of Indian and foreign directors, respectively
  • Address proofs: Ration card or Aadhar card or driver’s license or voter ID
  • Residence proofs: Bank Statement or electricity bill of the premise
  • Notarized rental agreement
  • NOC from the property owner
  • A copy of the sale deed or property deed (for an owned property)
  • Digital signature of any one director

What Is The Process Of Registering A Private Limited Company?

Once a name for the company is finalized, the following steps have to be carried out by the applicant: 

Step 1: Apply for DSC (Digital Signature Certificate).
Step 2: Apply for the DIN (Director Identification Number)
Step 3: Apply for the name availability.
Step 4: File the EMoa and EAOA with registration form to register the private limited company
Step 5: Apply for the PAN and TAN of the company
Step 6: Certificate of incorporation will be issued by RoC with PAN and TAN
Step 7: Open a current bank account on the company name


Merits and Demerits are the two sides of the same coin, likewise, for a private limited company. It is the most prevalent and recognized business entity, in the current date. This is majorly due to the higher degree of freedom, that it offers in setting it up and functioning.

There’s no time gap between these two, and that’s an incredible opportunity to encourage start-ups. After BCom. Courses, thousands of young minds sketch business plans, not always relevant or effective in the public domain. Whereas the private window offers a more homely than a professional working space, warming up young interns to gear up quickly.

Massive Private Limited Companies have prospered beyond extents, inspiring millions to execute their expertise. Some of these include Flipkart, Ola, Snapdeal, etc. It’s important to have directional thinking and appropriate strategies,  to suit the ideas.

Part – iv- Learn Commerce structures IV: Public Limited Company
Part – ii – Learn Commerce Structures II: Proprietorship Firm
Part – i – Learn Commerce Structures: All About Partnership Firms

Learn Commerce Structures II: Proprietorship Firm

A Proprietorship Firm or Sole Proprietorship is the simplest form of business that can…

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A Proprietorship Firm or Sole Proprietorship is the simplest form of business that can be. It is one-man business ownership, where the owner is the business and is not a separate legal entity. Being a separate legal entity comes with government regulations which Sole proprietorship is exempt from. These do not even need to be registered. Most small businesses start as sole proprietorships and go on to expand later.

Since the owner and the business are the same entity, in this case, the profits and losses incurred by the business are directly incurred by the owner. This has both positive and negative aspects of the business and its owner. To learn more about Proprietorship Firms, after B.Com course in Ahmedabad is a good choice.

What Makes A Sole Proprietorship?

  • No Separate Identities: Since the business and the owner are the same, the owner becomes responsible for all transactions and activities carried out by the business.
  • The Risk Factor: The profits and losses of the business are directly associated with the owner. This means all losses are incurred from the personal wealth of the owner while all profits go to their personal wealth as well.
  • Legal Formalities: Since no law governs sole proprietorship, there are no procedures to follow when establishing, expanding or closing a Proprietorship Firm. 
  • Liability: Since the business equates to the owner, there is an unlimited financial liability for the owner. The debts and liabilities of the business automatically fall on the owner.
  • Owner and Business Life-cycle: The events and occurrences in the life of the owner will directly impact the running of the business. An accident, death, imprisonment, etc. will all affect the business operations directly.

Proprietorship Firm Is Not A One Person Company

  • Legality Of The Business: Unlike a proprietorship firm which is not a legal entity, a One Person Company is a legal entity that is separate from the owner. It is defined and regulated under the Companies Act 2013. Enrolling in the after Commerce course in Ahmedabad will prove helpful in learning more about what makes Sole Proprietorship a unique and also largely preferred business choice for a lot of people. 
  • Liabilities: The liabilities of the business do not directly fall on the owner in the case of a One Person company. The owner has a limited liability towards the only shareholder of his company (Which practically is himself, but not so legally).
  • Succession: Succession in a Proprietorship Firm depends on declaring a legal nominee. The continuity of the business stays uncompromised only if the nominee is declared in a will. The death of the (only) company member will otherwise simply disrupt the business.
  • Tax Returns: If the annual turnover crosses the legally specified limit, sole proprietorships need to get their accounts audited. A-One Person Company on the other hand has to file annual returns just like a private limited company. 
  • Change In Nature: An increase in turnover of a One Person Company can lead to it becoming a Private or Public Limited Company. For a Sole Proprietorship, regardless of the profits earned, its status remains as a Sole Proprietorship.

Advantages Of A Sole Proprietorship

  • Complete Control: Since the owner is directly liable for everything, at all steps and stages of the business, the owner has the complete power to decide on matters.
  • Confidentiality: Financial data and documents are not required to be published by Sole Proprietorships which maintains the confidentiality of procedures and operations. 
  • Sense Of Achievement: Since the owner is answerable to own self only, all good decisions, advances, and business expansions bring great satisfaction to the self of the owner.

The Advantages Are Only One Side Of The Coin: Disadvantages Of Sole Proprietorship

  • Unlimited Liability: The aspect of complete control means all losses are solely incurred by the owner. The liabilities continue from the business to the owner. A failing business can take with it the personal wealth of the owner.
  • Uncertain Lifecycle: The life cycle of a Proprietorship Firm depends directly on the outlook and life events of the owner. A debilitated attitude or the happening of an event with a negative impact can leave the business in the lurch.
  • Limits to Managerial Abilities: Since the owner is the business, and no other people are a part of it, tasks like managerial work become difficult to pull off for a single person. 
  • Limited Capital: Since there is only so much that an individual can invest from their personal wealth into a business, these businesses also need money to expand. Unfortunately, banks are not actively willing to lend to proprietorships.

The commerce course in Ahmedabad is a great learning opportunity for those planning to venture into the business world. A Sole Proprietorship is often the beginning of what ends up becoming big and beloved brands, products and service providers. Starting on one’s own is always a better idea, a better learning experience. 

Part – iv- Learn Commerce structures IV: Public Limited Company
Part – iii – Learn Commerce Structures III: Private Limited Company
Part – i – Learn Commerce Structures: All About Partnership Firms

Learn Commerce Structures: All About Partnership Firms

When you start a business or a venture one has to make decisions. And…

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When you start a business or a venture one has to make decisions. And business is a whole new process of setting a company or a firm that is just like a newborn baby. A baby has to be taken care of and has to be taught everything and also needs spoon-feeding. A new venture requires a whole lot of effort and partnership is the most major part of it. 

A partnership is a part of a new venture and you as an individual have to decide whether you want to do solo business or you want a helping hand. So, today we will learn about a partnership, different features of partnerships, and different types of partnerships.

If you are a person who wants to start a new venture after B.com course in Ahmedabad. The partnership will be the most important aspect of it. And here you will get to know partnership and how a partnership works? And what is a partnership? And some of its key features.

A partnership is part of a business or a new venture. Also, a partnership is considered to be a kind of business. In this kind of business, minimum of two partners decide to come together for a new venture and share responsibilities as decided by them. In a partnership, there is a formal agreement that takes place between two or more people and they are the co-owners. And in this agreement, all have shared as mutually decided in profits as well as losses. Also, there is no solo decision; the majority of all the partners have to agree to the decision.

In India, all functions and aspects of partnership works or are administered under ‘The Indian Partnership Act 1932’. This law specifies and explains that a partnership is an association between two or more individuals or organizations who have agreed to be co-owners of a venture and they have to share the profits and loss as mutually decided. Also, the share of profits that have been generated from a business should be done under the supervision of the members or on the behalf of other members.

Features Of Partnership

Now that we have understood what a partnership looks like, let’s look at some features that constitute this type of arrangement.

  1. Partners Agreement: In a company or an organization the association of two or more partners is the most important aspect. When you as an individual decide to do a partnership for your new venture all the partner’s agreements will be the prior thing to do. An agreement is the basis of an association between two or more individuals. This is a type of agreement that is always written. Also, some people do an oral agreement evenhandedly. But it is preferable to do a written agreement. Also, it is always that all partners have a copy of their written agreement. The agreement should also be norarised and prescribed stamp duty has to be paid on the same. We have also registered our firm with the registrar of the firm.
  2. Two or more two people: In a new venture it is always suggested that there should be a partnership of two people which have a common goal. In an enterprise, for a partnership, at least two people should be there. Whereas there can be more than two people depending upon what is your goal. 
  3. Sharing of profit: When two people form an association for a common goal so it is a rule that they have to share the profit or loss that is being processed by the company. The partners have to share the profit as well as loss as mutually decided.
  4. Profit Motive: It is very important that when you and your partners start a business that business should be profitable and have a gaining motive.
  5. Correlated Business: In a partnership both the partners are the co-owners as well as an agent of their firm. Any act performed by a partner will affect the other partners and the company. So, this point acts as a test of partners and their partnership.
  6. Limitless Liabilities: Every partner in a partnership has limitless liabilities.  All the partners are jointly and severally liable for all the losses caused by  the firm.

These features are the most important for the person who wants to start a partnership. After commerce course in Ahmedabad, an individual must have learned about the features of a partnership and how it works.

Types Of Partnerships

Partnerships are divided into different categories depending upon the state and at which part of the world business operates. Here we will talk about three common types of partnerships.

  • General Partnership: This type of partnership comprises two or more two people who have formed an association to run a business. In this type of partnership, every partner has an equal right and every partner can exercise their rights. Every partner has the right to control business and also participate in every activity like decision making, management activities, etc. Not only the rights, but there is equal sharing of responsibilities as well as liabilities. Any type of loss, profit, or liability every partner will be held responsible for the same. Even if one partner is sued, the rest of the partners are held accountable. The court or the creditor will hold the partner’s assets. So, people usually don’t opt for this type of partnership.
  • Limited Partnership: In this partnership, includes each of the final and restricted partners. the final partner has unlimited liability, manages the business, and also the alternative restricted partners. restricted partners have restricted management over the business (limited to his investment). they’re not related to the everyday operations of the firm. In most cases, the restricted partners solely invest and take a profit share. they do not have any interest in taking part in the management or higher cognitive process. This group action means that they are doing not have the correct to compensate the partnership losses from their revenue enhancement come back
  • Limited Liability Partnership: In an LLP partnership all the partners have limited liability. Each partner is guarded against alternative partners’ legal and monetary mistakes. A Limited Liability Partnership is similar to a Limited Liability Company (LLC) but different from Limited Partnership and a general partnership. We have to register LLC to registrar of companies under LLP Act to start the same.
  • Partnership At-Will: Partnership at Will can be defined as a partnership where no clause has been mentioned about the expiration date of the partnership. Under Section 7 of The Indian Partnership Act 1932, Two clauses have to be fulfilled for Partnership At Will
  1. The partnership agreement should not have any fixed expiration date.
  2. No particular determination of the partnership should be mentioned.

Therefore, if the duration of the partnership has been mentioned in the agreement that will not be considered Partnership At Will. Also, If the firm has initially fixed an expiration date but continues or is operational after the given date then that is considered Partnership At Will.The technicalities of Partnership can only be learned from a good institute. Like the commerce course in Ahmedabad offered by H.L College of Commerce.

Advantages of Partnership

  • In a partnership, there is an easy formation that can be done through an oral or written agreement
  • In a new venture, there is a large use of resources instead of  being a sole proprietor you can be share and contribute the capital
  • There is flexibility where you can make any changes ad required to achieve the motive
  • All the loss and profits are equally shared and burden so no one individual is a loss or profit
  • A partnership firm has a combination of new skills because there is the advantage of knowledge, skill, talents and experience.

Disadvantages Of Partnership

  • There is a limited amount of capital
  • There are unlimited liabilities
  • There is difficulty in transferring shares because the funds can only be transferred once the agreement is done
  • A partnership business could face dissolution just in case of death, economic condition or mental or physical sickness of active partners
  • A partnership has limited business sizes and it barely has its existence of the law so there is a less public faith
  • In a partnership, some dispute can occur in terms of authority and the profit so this create problems between the partners and for the business
  • With a lack of prompt decision the partner’s square measure needed to make consequences before creating any call within the partnership business.All the partner ought to move to debate the matter of business. therefore this takes a very long time to form a call and conjointly delays it
  • There is a risk of implied authority that the two active partners are the decision-makers of the business, but there is no certainty if the partner is deciding for the betterment of the business. There is a risk whether the partner is deciding for his or her benefits


A partnership is the best way to do business. As it creates opportunities for any two or more individuals and this brings the best out of it. Two or more minds with creative and mind-blowing ideas give outstanding performance and results. The partnership is a benefit for those who have a proper written agreement because that will help in doing a proper and well-structured business with equal responsibilities and liabilities.

Part – iv- Learn Commerce structures IV: Public Limited Company
Part – iii – Learn Commerce Structures III: Private Limited Company
Part – ii – Learn Commerce Structures II: Proprietorship Firm