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Accounting Reserves: Concept

Several times we have heard the word reserve in accounting but the exact meaning…

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Several times we have heard the word reserve in accounting but the exact meaning is at times not explained in various accounting classes and also most of the classes are not covering in the accounting courses. And even if it is explained in various accounting classes by learned faculties, students fail to understand the basics. They know it’s accounting effect. Do they really know what is it? Or why it is created for?

Let us understand the concept of reserves and their types:

Profit earned by any business is payable to its proprietor. But the proprietor does not withdraw the whole amount of profit. He leaves some amount of profit to maintain the liquidity and strengthen the financial position of the business. This amount is known as the reserve. Reserve is profits, appropriated for a particular purpose.

There is a long list of reserves created for in the books of accounts as explained in various accounting classes. And truly, it is so. However, primarily we can classify reserves in two categories:

  • Revenue reserve
  • Capital reserve

Revenue reserves can be further classified into:

  1. General reserve: Profit determined by the profit and loss statement at the end of the year, the proportion of such profit is not aid to the proprietor, but kept apart is known as revenue reserve. General reserve is created to maintain the liquidity of the business resources, meeting any known contingencies, liabilities, etc.
  2. Specific reserve: If the provision is created for any specific period it is known as a specific reserve. This reserve cannot be utilized for any other purposes. For example- Reserve for Repairs and Maintenance, Reserve for Outstanding Expenses.

On the other hand, Capital Reserve refers to the profit that arises from the sources other than the normal trading activities. Such profit is known as capital profit. A capital reserve is an account on the balance sheet which can be used for contingencies or to offset capital losses. It is built out of capital profit and not out of business profit.

Hence, we can infer that reserve is a great source for financing any long-term project of any company, and if a company which isn’t keen to go for debt, term loan etc. can use this reserve to fully finance their new projects. There are many sub-classifications we focus during our accounting classes on reserves. For more such details you can attend our free demo classes.

Understanding Methods of Depreciation

Generally, methods for providing depreciation are based on the formula developed on a study of…

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depreciation method - Best accounting classes in ahmedabad

Generally, methods for providing depreciation are based on the formula developed on a study of the behavior of the assets over a period of years for readily computing the amount of depreciation suffered by different forms of assets. However, various accounting institutes focus on a few methods and overlook the other methods. Due to space constraint, we will explain only two most commonly used depreciation methods here.

The two methods for providing depreciation are the Straight Line Method and the Reducing Balance Method. The Straight Line Method is the most suitable and accurate method to adapt in most case. The income tax rules, however, prescribe the Reducing Balance Method except in the case of assets of an undertaking engaged in generation and distribution of power.

Straight Line Method: An equal amount is written off every year during the working life of an asset so as to reduce the cost of the asset to nil or its residual value at end of its useful life. The advantages of this method are that it is simple to apply and give accurate result results especially in the case of leases, patent and copyrights, and also in case of plant and machinery. This method is even known as Fixed Instalment Method.

Methods of Depreciation - best tally classes in ahmedabad

So, it is very simple. And it is like apportioning some expenses every year. So, no need to attend any accounting institute for this purpose.

Reducing Balance Method: Under this method, a fixed percentage of diminishing value of the asset is written off each year, so as to the asset to its break – up value at the end of its life, repairs and small renewals being charged to revenue. This method is commonly used for plants, fixtures, etc. Under this system, the annual charge for depreciation decreases from year to year, so that the earlier years suffer to the benefit of the later years. Also, under this method, the value of the asset can never be completely extinguished, which happens in the early explained Straight Line Method.

Many accounting institutes and academies stop at this juncture instead of teaching students exact formulae of arriving at the proper depreciation rate. But our accounting training in Ahmedabad focuses on every nitty-gritty of this method since this method is generally the only allowed method of calculating income tax applicable to the firm.

In this method, Depreciation goes on decreasing every year. The formula is –

best accounting classes in ahmedabad 2018-12-19

Suppose that the fixed asset purchase price is 10,000, the scrap value is 1,000, and the depreciation rate is 30%.

Using the Reducing balance method, 30% of the depreciation base (net book value minus scrap value) is calculated at the end of the previous depreciation period. Calculation of depreciation for the first three years is shown in the following table.

Understanding Methods of Depreciation - accounting classes in ahmedabad

If you have any questions related to this topic, we will be happy to revert to you or you can visit our accounting institute in Ahmedabad and attend a free demo class of depreciation accounting.

Principal Book of Accounts

Oh! What is this? Principal book of accounts? Had you attended our accounting course,…

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Principal-Book-of--Accounts the best classes in Ahmedabad

Oh! What is this? Principal book of accounts? Had you attended our accounting course, you would not ask this question. The answer is simple, it called ‘Ledger’. Ledger is the principal book of accounts where similar transactions relating to a particular person or property or expenses are recorded. It is a set of accounts. It contains all accounts of business enterprises whether real, nominal or personal. The main function of the ledger is to classify out sort out all the items appearing in the journal or other subsidiary books under their appropriate accounts so that at the end of the accounting period each account will contain the entire information of all the transactions relating to it a summarized or condensed form.

The following is the specimen ruling of the standard form of the ledger account.

princacc - s20 the best tally classes in ahmedabad

Ledger posting :
The term ‘posting’ means transferring the debit and credit items from the journal to their respective accounts in the ledger. So without practical accounting training also, you can do this. Still, certain minute things which are covered in various accounting courses are also explained here.

Following rules should be observed while posting transactions in the ledger from the journal.

  • Separate accounts should be opened in the ledger for posting transactions relating to different accounts recorded in the journal.
  • The concerned account which has been debited in the journal should also be debited in the ledger i.e., the debit of the journal entry is posted to the debit side. However, a reference should be made of the other account which has been credited in the journal.
  • The concern account which has been credited in the journal, should also be credited in the ledger i.e., the credit of the journal entry is posted to the credit side, but a reference should be given of the other account which has been debited in the journal.
  • It is customary to use the words ‘To’ and ‘By’ while making posting in the ledger. The word ‘To’ is used with the accounts shown on the debit side of the ledger account while the word ‘By’ is used with accounts which appears on the credit side of the ledger account.
  • In the folio column, the page number of the journal form where the entry is transferred to the ledger account is written.

The date of the transaction is written on the date column.

Super20 - the best accounting classes in ahmedabad

super20 the accounting classes in ahmedabad

So, it is very simple and easy. Only thing, which is expected of you is accuracy in the entire process. And for accuracy, all you need is to do lot of practice. Because, at our accounting training institute in Ahmedabad, while teaching various accounting courses, we stress utmost for accuracy.

If you have any questions or are looking for the best accounting training institute in Ahmedabad, you may contact us.

IL&FS Fiasco and Accounting Statements

Recently, the entire nation has been shocked to see that the institution of the…

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Recently, the entire nation has been shocked to see that the institution of the size, scale and reputation like IL&FS has defaulted on its interest obligations.

It is noteworthy that IL&FS was considered to be one of the most reputed borrowers in India and perceived to be a Government backed institution. We have to understand that what makes such a large institution fail. There may be many reasons, but in the context of this article let us look at the accounting statements only.

Following is a summarized consolidated financial statements highlights of IL&FS in recent past.

Accounting statement

Now we have to understand the items line by line. Because, at Super 20 Training Institute, our aim is to understand these items from a practical perspective. And you are aware that it is the best accounting institute in Ahmedabad. Many accounting institutes in Ahmedabad focus on teaching books. Rather S20 as an Accounting Training Institute has set a benchmark by focussing on such case study based practical approach in learning accounting, taxation, tally, GST etc.

It is apparent that the company was the anyways troubled one looking at the above numbers. The company was borrowing at a fast pace and this has resulted into the highest ever interest expenses being borne by the company. The company’s operating profits are decreasing on one side and on the other side the company’s interest expenses shot up drastically by 21%. The sole reason for this difference was that the company continued to borrow funds from the markets and mostly they were short-term borrowings. As you may be aware that in recent past the short-term interest rates are much higher compared to long-term interest rates. Company’s projects were mostly long-term in nature so they had to ideally raise funds from longer term papers. But the company did the contrary.

So, net if you see revenues of the firm were up by 9% in last one year. That looks quite rosy. Now if we look at the operating profits we have a doubt. Operating profits were down by -13%. That means something is seriously wrong. On rising revenues, the company had negative operating profits.

The company’s depreciation was also not in line with the expectations. It was up about 20%. There also somebody needs to dig deeper. And ultimately that has resulted into the company making cash losses as well as accounting losses. This is very alarming and fishy and only some drastic or magical steps can save this company that we can infer.

Friends, we will examine this case from a financial and accounting ratio analysis perspective in my next article. But as of now what we have understood is that the company was troubled operationally as well as financially. If you do not understand any of this topic discussed above you can approach team S20 for more clarity and understanding. You can also write to us at [email protected]. We provide people of any background a simple, effective and practical training in Accounting, Taxation, GST, Tally. You can know more about our courses at www.s20.in/courses

IL&FS fiasco and accounting ratios

We have a space constraint, so let us not discuss what was discusses in…

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We have a space constraint, so let us not discuss what was discusses in the previous article. But you can refer my article IL&FS fiasco and accounting statements for basic understanding.

Now let us straight away understand what are accounting ratios or financial ratios as they are famously referred to.

I have produced direct ratios as calculated by me in MS Excel. If you do not know how to calculate financial ratios or how to arrive at accounting ratios you can approach Super 20 Training Institute – Ahmedabad. We provide such case based, practical and detailed understanding of various topics in our Accounting Courses, Taxation Courses, GST Courses, Tally Courses etc. at our training institute in Ahmedabad.

Now let us look at Operating Profit Margin. In FY1617, Operating Profit Margin was 49%, whereas, in FY1718, Operating Profit Margin was 39%. Such a big erosion in margins is worrisome. That means the company has some serious operating issue which needs to be looked at. Or the figures may be misleading for the previous years.

The next important accounting ratio is EBIT margin. That is Earning Before Interest and Taxes Margin. In FY1617, EBIT Margin was 42%, whereas, in FY1718, EBIT Margin was 31%. This is the significant decline. That means the company has less amount of money to meet their interest expenses.

Finally, we are staring at Net Profit Margin. In FY1617, Net Profit Margin was 1%, whereas, in FY1718, Net Profit Margin was -10%. The company was barely profitable in the previous year. Hence, everything was not ok even in FY1617 also. It was not ignored by everyone concerned with the company. And now we are staring at a big loss in FY1718. Signals were there, but they were ignored.

How default is evident from the above analysis. It is from Interest Coverage Ratio. In FY1617, the company was barely able to meet its interest obligations. On the other side, in FY1718 the interest cover was less than 1.

That means that the company did not have sufficient funds to service their interest obligations. Still, the company kept raising funds from the markets. All these funds were short-term funds basically to see the day has gone off or passed. The management was doing time pass all these days. The regulators were sleeping. The Government thought that the investors like LIC, SBI are taking care of IL&FS. LIC, SBI and other foreign investors were thinking that the management was very much able and worthy. Credit rating agencies were giving AAA rating blindly. Lenders took money from public and loaned to IL&FS thinking it is backed by the Government and anyways AAA. But it was written on the wall that IL&FS is not functioning well. And the worst came true. The institution of this size, scale and reputation are staring at bankruptcy.

Friends, these are the easy tools to analyse the company’s accounting records. Anyone, who wants to understand such topics in detail may contact us at [email protected]. or visit our website. We are proud to be known as the best accounting training institute in Ahmedabad. All the best.

Latest Technology Trends in Accounting

Accountant in earlier days meant a Mehtaji / Munimji sitting with a red bulky…

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Accountant in earlier days meant a Mehtaji / Munimji sitting with a red bulky book on his desk, wearing spectacles and giving a frowning look at bills. And then we saw revolution of computer that has changed the way we do accounting. Then came accounting softwares and then ERPs like SAP, Oracle etc. Accountants tried to follow these trends by undergoing various accounting training. We saw many tally training institutes. Any new trend is followed by various courses.

Technology is ever evolving and accounting field is no exception. I still remember how demand was exploded for tally courses in Ahmedabad. And how people used to line up to do accounting courses in Ahmedabad. I still remember that first preference for courses after B.Com. would be accounting or business accounting and taxation courses.

Now what are latest technology trends in accounting in Indian cities like Mumbai / Ahmedabad?

1. Evolution of cloud based softwares
All software vendors are on this now. India’s highest selling software Tally or world’s highest selling software Quick-books all are seeing increasing adoption of their cloud versions. So no doubt we are seeing a secure, accessible and cost effective way of doing accounting. So bye bye desktop based versions. All hail for cloud based softwares.

2. Evolution of customized softwares and applications
People today also buy ready-made softwares like Tally for accounting. And then they get their staff take tally courses and training or prefer to hire staff from tally training institutes. However, many organisations have focused on providing their staff with adequate accounting training by providing them various accounting courses and training. And later on tried to have a customised accounting softwares for their organisations. This has really helped them. We think that it is very cumbersome and costly process. It is like inventing a wheel. I think there is no need for having customised accounting software when you have all kinds of softwares available.

3. Quickbooks is fast evolving in India
Quickbooks – a global leader with their low price strategy is registering healthy growth and traction in India. Small organizations are fast adopting Quick-books. I have now some students asking for Quick-books course in Ahmedabad instead of Tally Course in Ahmedabad.

4. Tally seems to have a tough time in India
Yes. It is right. The leader in Indian Accounting market seems to have tough time. It is apparent. They are being challenged by local players like Busy, Marg etc. On the other side they have regional players to compete with like Miracle, Kuber etc. Newer players like Zoho have also become very aggressive. SAP and Oracle have also small business suites. And global leaders like Quickbooks are becoming increasingly aggressive.

5. Accounting Training Institutes are growing
Yes. There are lots of accounting jobs, accountant vacancies and it seems our B.Com. syllabi are outdated. They are totally out of sync with industry. And we see lot of demand for accounting training institutes in Ahmedabad and other cities of India. People line up and ask for various tally courses, accounting courses, GST courses etc.

6. Usage of ERP is increasing and expanding
Due to SAP and Oracle lowering their price tag and increasing their customizability many small and medium enterprises are now willing to adopt these packages. Also there are many small and home grown ERP players offering ERP packages at a fraction of the cost of SAP and Oracle. They are also reasonably good. So your inventory, finances, CRM and operations all are integrated.

7. Artificial Intelligence and Machine Learning
Though right now in my limited knowledge, I have not known artificial intelligence or machine learning being used by any organisation in accounting field. Recent activities of the likes of Netsuite are worth following. It is clear that in future AI would be part of any decision making process. So I am sure decision making activities in Accounting, various reporting systems and analytical processes in Accounting to increasingly use artificial intelligence and machine learning.

So, you may have questions, what kind of courses people need to after B.Com.? Welcome to Super 20 Training Institute. Our Executive of Commerce (Accounting, GST & Tally) Course is one of its kind in India. No match for it. I take a challenge. All the best.

Accounting with GST – Purchase

Despite people taking accounting courses in Ahmedabad, Tally courses in Ahmedabad, GST courses in…

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accounting-GST

Despite people taking accounting courses in Ahmedabad, Tally courses in Ahmedabad, GST courses in Ahmedabad, at times, we find due to clerical errors and lack of due diligence Accountants in Ahmedabad cause loss to their clients.

Hence, in our series of articles explaining accounting with GST today we will discuss purchase accounting with GST.

When we make purchase, we actually pay GST to the vendor/creditor. Under GST mechanism, we will then get credit of GST paid to the vendor. So it is very important for us to do this section very carefully.

Let us take a practical case to get accounting training / GST training in this matter.

Rittal Enterprise in Ahmedabad is a textile trading firm based at Ahmedabad. They purchase readymade shirts from Vittal Enterprise in Ahmedabad, a shirts manufacturer based at Ahmedabad.

Suppose Rittal Ahmedabad have purchased 1,000 nos. of shirts @ Rs. 500/- from Vittal Ahmedabad. Hence, total purchase value is Rs. 5,00,000/-

Now from the lookup of our GST training, we got to know that GST @ 5% is applicable on these kinds of products. Since the purchase is within state CGST @ 2.5% and SGST @ 2.5% will be applicable on this transaction. Since this is a purchase transaction these will be input GST. Input CGST Rs. 12,500/- and Input SGST Rs. 12,500/- will be paid to the vendor.

Now let us understand accounting effect in the books of Rittal Enterprise Ahmedabad:

Purchase of trading goods will always debited in the books of accounts. So, Purchase A/c Dr. Rs. 5,00,000/-. Input CGST and SGST are credits receivable hence they are debited in the books of accounts by Rs. 12,500/- each. The goods are purchased on credit hence Rittal Enterprise Ahmedabad is yet to pay to Vittal Enterprise Ahmedabad. So, Vittal Enterprise Ahmedabad is a creditor and their account need to be credited. So, final entry will look like as below:

Purchase A/c Dr.   Rs. 5,25,000/-
Input CGST Dr.      Rs. 12,500/-
Input SGST Dr.      Rs. 12,500/-
To Vittal Ent. Cr.    Rs. 5,25,000/-

Though this article has its own limitations, you can contact us for various accounting courses, GST courses, tally courses, wherein we try to cover such topics from a very practical perspective based on actual case studies. Super 20 Training Institute is proud to serve students in capacity of the best accounting training institute in Ahmedabad.