The tax effect due to the timing differences is termed as deferred tax which…

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The tax effect due to the timing differences is termed as deferred tax which literally refers to the taxes postponed. Deferred tax is recognised on all timing differences.

Timing Difference can be categorized into two parts namely:
1) Permanent timing difference
2) Temporary timing Difference

A permanent difference is the difference between the tax expense and tax payable caused by an item that does not reverse over time.

For example if any expense which is booked in the books of accounts but is not allowable under the Income Tax Act,1961 then this amount of difference will cause an entity to pay more amount of tax as compare to amount of tax which is payable as per books of accounts.

This difference is always be present and cannot be reversed as expense is not allowable under Income Tax.

Entity has to pay taxes as per rules prescribed under Income Tax Act, 1961.

Difference occurs due to transactions that create temporary differences are recognized by both financial accounting and accounting for tax purposes, but are recognized at different times.

For example a timing difference can be a rent income. Accrual accounting will only allow revenue to be recorded when it is earned, but if a company receives an advance payment of rental income, it must report this under taxable income on its tax return. As such, this revenue will be recorded on the tax return but not the book income. This creates a timing difference in this period. At a future period when the rental revenue is finally earned, the company will record that revenue under book income but not on its tax return, thereby reversing and eliminating the initial difference.

A deferred tax liability or asset is created when there are temporary differences between book tax and actual income tax. There are numerous types of transactions that can create temporary differences between pre-tax book of accounts income and taxable income as per Income Tax Act, 1961  thus creating deferred tax assets or liabilities.

Deferred tax liability occurs when Taxable income books of accounts is more than taxable income as per Income Tax Act, 1961.

As per books of accounts company is liable to pay more tax but as per Income Tax Act company is required to pay tax on Rs. 8500 only. This difference arise as there is an difference in rate of depreciation but this will settle in future times.

Deferred tax asset is created when Profit as per books of account is less than the Taxable income under Income Tax Act, 1961.

Let us say an electrical goods Company has a revenue of Rs 5 lakhs and it has expenses of Rs 3 lakhs, thus a profit of Rs 2 Lakhs. However, the expenses are bifurcated as Rs 2.5 Lakhs for the cost of goods sold, general expenses, etc., and Rs 50,000 for future warranties and returns. The Income tax do not consider future warranties as an expense. It is because this expense has not been incurred but only accounted for. Therefore, the Company cannot deduct such an expense while calculating taxes thus, pay tax on Rs 50,000 as well. Therefore, this amount will be part of the deferred tax assets in the balance sheet.

To summarise, the deferred tax asset or liability can be understood in the following manner.

To know more about accounting and treatment in books of accounts you can refer accounting course in Ahmedabad.


All About Deferred Tax – What You Need To Know

Contrary to its name, deferred tax is actually an accounting concept. It is governed…

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deferred tax simplfied - what you need to know

Contrary to its name, deferred tax is actually an accounting concept. It is governed by Accounting Standard 22, which is studied as part of course curriculum of most accounting classes.

In reality, deferred tax is not any form of tax expense paid/payable to the government. It represents accounting for difference between tax expense as per books and as per tax return filed by a taxpayer entity.

Differences in tax expense as per books and as per tax return could occur on account of various reasons, for example the rate at which depreciation on certain asset is accounted for in books may be higher/lower than what is permitted as per income tax law. Another example could be donations made by the company – while they are recorded as expense in profit and loss account, they are not an allowable deduction while computing taxable income.

All such differences are to be classified as either timing difference or permanent difference. Timing differences are those which will get reversed in the future. However, permanent differences are those which, as the name suggests, are permanent in nature and will not be reversed in the future. In the above example, while the book depreciation rate may be different than tax depreciation rate, the cost of asset would eventually be depreciated in entirety in both books and tax records. It is merely that the period over which it is depreciated will differ. Hence, it would qualify as timing difference. On the other hand, donation is never allowed as an expense and therefore qualifies as a permanent difference.

Deferred tax is recognised only on timing differences. Depending upon the nature of timing difference, either a deferred tax asset is created or a deferred tax liability is recognized in a financial year. Every year, the position is revisited and the deferred tax asset or deferred tax liability may be reversed depending upon the calculations made.

When there is a disallowance / addition to Profit before tax in tax return, deferred tax asset is created. When additional deduction / allowance is claimed from Profit before tax in tax return, deferred tax liability is created. Instead of mugging it up, whether an asset is to be created or liability, can be understood in logical terms as under:

  • When a disallowance / addition is made in tax return vis-a-vis the expense booked in books, it implies that taxable income is higher in current year, i.e. tax paid is higher now, thus lower tax would need to be paid in future, hence recognize an asset now.

  • Conversely, when higher deduction is claimed in tax return vis-a-vis the expense booked in books, it implies that taxable income is lower in current year, tax paid is lower now, thus higher tax would need to be paid in future, hence recognize a liability now.

Accounting Standard 22 provides for various other aspects related to deferred tax recognition as well, such as:

  • deferred tax is to be recognized at enacted or substantively enacted rate as on balance sheet date
  • deferred tax asset is recognized when there is ‘virtual certainty’ that the asset can be reversed in the future
  • deferred tax getting reversed within the tax holiday period should not be recognized

This might sound like too complicated and confusing, but if one were to think logically, the concept of deferred tax is pretty simple. Accounting classes at Super 20 Training Institute can help you learn complex accounting concepts such as these with ease.